ENGLISH PEDAGOGY FOR CTET/HTET/UPTET IN PDF
Methods of Teaching & Reading
- The Alphabetic Method
- The Phonic method
- The Word method
- The Phrase Method
- The Sentence Method
Learning Experiences to Develop Skill in Comprehension:
The teacher should take the following steps to develop that skill in comprehension of the students:
- Give dictation.
- When the pupils icad alouú, Chicok up iu sce iliai tey liave graspeu the sense of wiiai ility liave itaú.
- Introduce new words in meaningful contexts.
- Give practice in finding a sutable title to the passage that has been read.
- After a poem has been recited, get the pupils to illustrate it in a series of sketches.
- Read a story slowly and deliberately, as the story is being read, get a group of children to perform dumb action on it, While the rest of the class judges the appropriateneness of these actions.
- Pupils may be asked to locate the sentence which best gives the central idea.
- Get the pupils frame a question for which the passage read provides the answer.
- When a number of paragraphs have been studies, ask the question. “which paragraph tells us about…?” and let the pupil try to locate the paragraph.
- Ask the pupils to give the gist of what they have read or heard.
Teaching – Learning Material
Teaching of English
Audio-visual aids can be classified into three categories: 1 Audio-teaching aids, 2 Visual teaching aids and 3 Audio-visual aids.
- Audio teaching aids: Tape-recorder, radio, gramophone, telephonic conversation and audio tapes used in tape recorder or language laboratory.
Visual teaching aids:
(i) Print, e.g., textbooks, magazines, newspaper, encyclopedia.
(ii) Non-projected 2-dimensional, e.g. graphs, charts, pictures, cartoons, comics.
(iii) Non-projecte 3-dimensional, e.g., models, diagrams, globes, specimens, puppets. (iv) Projected-still, e.g., slides, filmstrips, overhead transparencies, microfilms.
Learning : Few Essential Points
1. Every new item must be learnt by reinforcement by further practice before further learning begins.
2. Learning takes place fast if a correct response is given the students. The learner must know at once if his effort is right or wrong
3. Language is learnt only through practice. The more the learner is exposed to the use of language, the better chance of learning it.
4. The spoken language comes earlier than the written as the passive experience of language is necessary before any productive (active) use can begin.
5. Producing the correct linguistic response to a stimulus requires efforts. If the learner is not called upon to make this effort there is no learning. 6. Producing correct response also requires attention.
Cognitivism is the doctrine that the mind can be invoked in scientific investigation and even be made the object of study itself. Today most psychologists, philosophers and linguists, are preferably happy to invoke invisible things like minds and purposes and even to make mind itself the object of study. This approach is called Cognitivism
Stages of Learning Learning, in case of aii persons, proceeds inrough five stages. These are as foiiows:
- The first stage is ‘acquisition’. During this stage the person learns a new task.
- The second stage is ‘fluency/proficiency’. During this stage, the person learns to perform the new task to a higher degree of accuracy..
- The third stage is ‘maintenance’. During this stage, the person is able to perform the task independently, even after teaching has ended.
- The fourth stage is ‘generalization’. During this stage, the person learns to generalize the learned skills/tasks to other situations or environments. In other words, he is able to perform the task in situations other than the ones in which he had learnt it.
- The last stage is ‘adaptation’. During this stage, the learner applies a previously learnt skill in a new area of application without direct instruction or guidance.
Strategies to be used during acquisition stage
Follow the steps described below while teaching a new task to the child.
1. When teaching the child something new for the first time, show him how to do the task and then ask him to do it (demonstration);
2. Depending upon the child’s ability, you might need to given him verbal instructions at each step along with the demonstration or you may need to give him physical help to do the task
3. Verbal instructions given during training the child to learn the new task should be the same or similar from one day to the next, as children get confused if the instructions are changed too often.
4. Appreciate the child when he does the task appropriately. It helps in motivating the child to carry on with the learning. This is also called giving reinforcement.
5. Give feedback to the child regarding how he performed the activity. 6. We may need to make certain adaptations/modifications in the items used by the child according to the abilities of the child with cerebral palsy. For example, if the child has limited hand function, then we may use a special plate or an adapted spoon to suit the needs of the child.